Gilet gialli e nuove forme di conflittualità sociale e politica
Saperi. In assenza di un grande collettore politico prevalgono le specializzazioni, manca il dialogo tra i saperi e la frammentazione blocca le potenzialità del pensiero critico. Una parziale cartografia degli studiosi italiani di varie discipline
Cultura, Saperi, Università, Dialogo
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Gilet gialli e nuove forme di conflittualità sociale e politica

Sul movimento dei Gilet gialli in Francia vi possono essere valutazioni differenti. Tuttavia esso offre spunti per più riflessioni su nuove forme di conflittualità sociale ed espressione politica.

   Innanzitutto si tratta di un movimento auto-organizzato e con un pronunciato grado di spontaneità.

Analogamente a quanto si è verificato per il precedente Nuit Debout e con tratti che, per certi versi, ricordano l’esperienza degli Indignados, di Occupy Wall Street e altri, si tratta di moti dal basso che, partiti da un motivo di protesta centrale, si sono allargati a  diversi  soggetti ed obiettivi di lotta.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

   Com’è noto, nel caso dei Gilet gialli il motivo iniziale della protesta è stato l’aumento dei prezzi del carburante, cui si è subito sommata la contestazione di un elevato onere fiscale, iniquo per la maggioranza della popolazione rispetto ai privilegi accordati ai ceti più abbienti (vari meccanismi di defiscalizzazione, abolizione della tassazione progressiva sui redditi, cancellazione dell’imposta patrimoniale, facilitazione di crediti alle imprese e altri).

   A queste si sono, via via affiancate altre ragioni di lotta. Aumento della disoccupazione e inerzia dei governi nei confronti della crescente delocalizzazione produttiva all’estero. Peggioramento delle condizioni di lavoro, con diminuzione dei redditi e aumento precarietà, basso rendimento di molti lavori autonomi, dilatazione delle fasce di lavoratori poveri. Prelievi dalle pensioni, già troppo basse. Né meraviglia la numerosa e combattiva partecipazione delle donne. Infatti sono maggiori che nel passato le loro difficoltà a trovare lavoro e le sperequazioni nel reddito. Pesanti le riduzioni dei provvedimenti per maternità, asili e simili.

   Ma proprio la convergenza di vari motivi di malcontento permette d’individuare meglio la contraddizione di fondo che fa da propellente del movimento di lotta. Essa va individuata nel fatto che la maggioranza della popolazione lavoratrice, da un lato, ha subìto un crescente peggioramento di redditi e condizioni sociali. Dall’altro lato, ha dovuto far fronte a costi sempre più onerosi di sistemi di vita dai quali non può sfuggire perché connaturati al funzionamento delle società tardo capitaliste e che riguardano l’aumento di affitti o mutui per l’abitazione, utenze, trasporti, comunicazioni, consumi privati e domestici.  Il tutto aggravato dalle crescenti privatizzazioni dei servizi pubblici e tagli ai sistemi di welfare.

    Per i Gilet gialli tale contraddizione ha favorito l’innesto di ulteriori obiettivi di lotta, come la reintroduzione della tassa di solidarietà sulla ricchezza, l’aumento dei salari minimi, l’istruzione, la sanità e, infine, l’attuazione dei referendum d’iniziativa dei cittadini. Quest’ultima rivendicazione, che ha guadagnato via via più spazio, mostra chiaramente la crisi di sfiducia nelle istituzioni politiche tradizionali.

   Ma la contraddizione di fondo non riguarda solo la società francese. Essa si pone in termini affatto analoghi in tutti i paesi tardo capitalisti. Il che deve costituire un elemento di seria riflessione per le forze politiche che si pongono in alternativa a questo sistema di potere.

   E’ possibile che il movimento dei Gilet gialli, si esaurisca o si frantumi, se non riesce a trovare un adeguato coagulo politico e a dotarsi di organizzazione e prospettiva durature.

   E qui si pone la questione dirimente. Di fronte alle nuove forme di auto-organizzazione sociale e politica che emergono nei nostri paesi non ci si può proporre con funzioni di guida, rapportandosi in maniera pedagogica ed eteronoma. Occorre, invece, porsi in maniera affatto omogenea rispetto ai movimenti in atto ed operare come componenti interne che, interagendo con le altre, ne favoriscono la sintesi e i possibili sviluppi. Per farlo è necessario interpretare le dinamiche di tali movimenti e concorrere, con loro, alla ricerca di nuove forme dell’espressione politica.

(pubblicato su “il manifesto”, 5 febbraio 2019)